Planting technique of tomato autumn postponement in Jiangyan area

2022-07-14 0 By

The planting area of tomato in Jiangyan, Jiangsu province is large, but the planting area is mainly in early spring, and the planting area is less in late autumn. The supply of tomato in autumn and winter appears vacancy period.The seedling period and the early stage of planting of tomato in the facility of autumn postponement are usually in high temperature and rainy weather, the occurrence of diseases and insect pests is serious, and the temperature at the late growth stage is low. Therefore, the facility cultivation of tomato in the facility of autumn postponement requires high planting level of local vegetable farmers.Based on years of production practice, we summarized the technology of autumn delayed cultivation of facility tomato for reference to the vegetable farmers in Jiangyan and its surrounding areas.Selection of tomato varieties with high temperature resistance, early maturity and strong disease resistance, such as Jinpeng no. 1, Zhefen 702, etc.2.1 Seed treatment: select seeds, remove residual seeds and shriveled seeds, and then disinfect them.Common methods of seed disinfection include soaking seeds in warm soup and medicament.(1) Soak seeds in warm soup.The seeds will be selected into a glass or other containers, the glass into 55 ℃ warm water, constantly stirring, so that the seeds are heated evenly, the water temperature decreased after the appropriate amount of hot water, constant temperature soaking 10~15 min, and then temperature soaking 4~6 h.(2) Soaking seeds with medicament.Soak the selected seeds in 1% potassium permanganate solution for 15~20 min, stir appropriately, and then remove the seeds with clean water.The method of soaking seed in warm soup and the method of soaking seed in medicament can be used alone or in combination.It is recommended to soak the seeds in warm soup first and then soak the seeds in medicament. The disinfection effect is better.Sow the seeds as soon as they turn white.2.2 Sowing Sowing in early and middle July.Select 128 hole disc and special substrate for seedling.Hole dish seedling covers less space, and convenient management and later transplanting.When sowing, seed radicle is planted downward in the hole, try not to break the radicle, so as to facilitate root growth.2.3 Management of seedling stage Seedling stage requires high temperature and humidity.After sowing, water permeable to promote the germination of seeds, and then as little water as possible, generally do not water before bud, substrate dry need appropriate water.Before seedling emergence, the temperature in the nursery shed should be kept at 25-30 ℃. After seedling emergence, ventilation should be strengthened and the temperature should be appropriately reduced to 20-25 ℃.When the external temperature is high, the sun shade net can be covered to cool down.The nursery should be covered with insect-proof nets around the shed, and color boards can be hung in the shed to trap and kill pests.3. Field preparation and fertilization. The plots with non-solanum vegetables as the front crop were selected, and after the front crop was harvested, the field was covered with high temperature.The residual plants and weeds in the field were cleared, and the whole flat land was covered with 1-2 t of semi-decomposed organic fertilizer and 50 kg of lime nitrogen every 667 m 2, and the tillage was uniform. The enclosure stalks were built around the shed, and the irrigation depth was about 2 cm. Then the mulching film was covered and the shed was closed for 15 to 20 days.After the end of the stuffy shed, open the shed, remove the mulch, ventilation for about 1 weeks, re-ploughing and building beds.In order to facilitate the later management, the middle of the greenhouse left aisle, aisle on both sides of the transverse build.4 Transplanting In early and middle August, choose cloudy day or sunny evening for transplanting.After transplanting, irrigate enough live plants and plant 3 000~4 000 plants every 667 m 2.5 Field management 5.1 Fertilizer and water management After slow seedling, the field should not be overwatered, control the humidity in the shed, in case of heavy rain to dredge the ditch around the greenhouse in advance, to ensure that there is no water in the field after the rain;Increase the amount of water after fruit setting.When the first panicle was about to mature and the second panicle was larger, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer or urea was applied at a rate of 10 to 15 kg per 667 m 2.5.2 Temperature Management At the early stage of tomato transplanting, the temperature in the shed is high, which is not conducive to slow seedling. Sun shading net can be covered to cool down, and the temperature in the shed can be kept below 30 ℃ during the day.After slow seedling, gradually increase the light until the shading net is completely removed to prevent the plant from growing excessively.5.3 Pruning and branching: Single or double stalk pruning method should be adopted for timely pruning and hanging vines, leaving 3-4 panicles per plant and 3-4 fruits per panicle, and then topping.During tomato growth, cut off redundant branches, old leaves, yellow leaves and diseased fruit in time to improve field ventilation.Tomato disease and insect pest prevention to prevention, scientific control of temperature and humidity in the shed, to avoid high temperature and humidity.After colonization, color boards were hung in the shed, sexual attractants were placed, and insect control nets were installed in the ventilation of the shed.Seedling can be sprayed with protective agents to prevent diseases;If the diseased plant is found, it should be removed in time and taken to the shed for centralized treatment.In the early stage of disease occurrence, biological agents are timely used for prevention and control, and the use of drugs prohibited by state regulations is strictly prohibited.7 Harvesting Tomato fruits can be harvested in batches after maturity, generally in the shed at night temperature drops to 10 ℃ before the end of harvesting.Tomatoes harvested after the temperature drops to 10 ℃ in the shed at night should be taken after storage to prevent freezing damage, and temperature insulation facilities can be installed in the shed to improve the temperature.